Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) Quarterly Bulletin: January-March 2024

Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) Quarterly Bulletin: January-March 2024


The Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) is conducted by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoS&PI) based on recommendations from the National Statistical Commission (NSC).

  • The survey aims to generate monthly and quarterly labour market data using a robust methodology and sample design.
  • The latest findings from the January-March 2024 quarter provide insights into key labour market indicators in urban areas.


GS-03 (Economy)

Key Findings

  • Decrease in Unemployment Rate: The unemployment rate (UR) in urban areas for individuals aged 15 years and above saw a slight decrease from 6.8% in January-March 2023 to 6.7% in January-March 2024. This marginal reduction indicates a stabilizing job market over the past year.
    • Female Unemployment Rate: There was a more significant decrease in the female unemployment rate, which dropped from 9.2% to 8.5% over the same period. This improvement highlights better job prospects for women in urban areas.
  • Rise in Labour Force Participation Rate: The Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) in urban areas showed a notable increase, rising from 48.5% in January-March 2023 to 50.2% in January-March 2024 for persons aged 15 years and above. This upward trend reflects greater engagement of the urban population in the labour market.
    • Female LFPR: The female LFPR in urban areas increased significantly from 22.7% to 25.6%, indicating that more women are entering the workforce, contributing to the overall rise in LFPR.
  • Increase in Worker Population Ratio: The Worker Population Ratio (WPR) for individuals aged 15 years and above also experienced an upward trend, increasing from 45.2% in January-March 2023 to 46.9% in January-March 2024. This indicates a higher proportion of the population is employed.
    • Female WPR: The female Worker Population Ratio in urban areas rose from 20.6% to 23.4%, mirroring the overall increase in WPR and demonstrating enhanced employment opportunities for women.

Analysis and Implications

  • Economic and Social Impact: The overall improvement in key labour market indicators such as the unemployment rate, labour force participation rate, and worker population ratio suggests a positive economic trajectory for urban areas. The notable rise in female participation and employment rates reflects progress towards gender inclusivity in the urban workforce.
  • Policy and Future Prospects: These trends underscore the importance of continued policy support to sustain and enhance labour market participation, especially for women. Encouraging female employment through targeted initiatives can further bolster economic growth and social equity.


The findings from the Periodic Labour Force Survey’s quarterly bulletin for January-March 2024 highlight encouraging trends in the urban labour market. The slight decrease in unemployment rates, coupled with rising labour force participation and worker population ratios, signifies a strengthening job market. Notably, the increased participation and employment of women reflect ongoing progress towards a more inclusive and dynamic workforce.