Important amendments of the Constitution – Part 5
The important amendments
Eighty Fourth Amendment Act, 2001
- Extended the freeze on the readjustment of seats in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for another 25 years (i.e., up to 2026).
- This was done with the objective of encouraging population limiting measures.
- Which meant that the number of seats in the Lok Sabha and the assemblies will remain the same till 2026.
- It also said that the readjustment and rationalisation of territorial constituencies in the states to be done on the basis of the population figures of 1991 census.
Eighty Sixth Amendment Act, 2002
- Added the Article 21A which made elementary education for children between 6-14 years a fundamental right.
- Amended the subject matter of Article 45 in Directive Principles
- Amended Article 51-A to add a new fundamental duty.
Eighty Seventh Amendment Act, 2003
- The readjustment and rationalisation of territorial constituencies in the states to be done on the basis of the population figures of 2001 census instead of 1991 census.
Ninety First Amendment Act, 2003
- Made it so that total number of ministers, including the Prime Minister shall not exceed 15% of the total strength of the Lok Sabha.
- A member of either house of Parliament or state legislature belonging to any political party if disqualified on the ground of defection shall automatically be disqualified to be appointed as a minister.
- The total number of ministers in a state, including the Chief Minister, shall not exceed 15% of the total strength of the Legislative Assembly of that state.
- However, the number of ministers, including the Chief Minister, in a state shall not be less than 12.
- A member of either House of Parliament or either House of a State Legislature belonging to any political party who is disqualified on the ground of defection shall also be disqualified to hold any remunerative political post.
- Deleted the provision of the Tenth Schedule pertaining to exemption from disqualification in case of split by one-third members of the legislature party.
Ninety Seventh Amendment Act, 2011
- Added Part IX-B to the constitution entitled “The Co-operative societies”.
- The right to form cooperative societies was made into a fundamental right under Article 19.
- Article 43-B was inserted as a Directive Principle of State Policy for the promotion of co-operative societies.