Antimicrobial Resistance


The recent survey conducted by the National Centre for Disease Control emphasizes the urgent need to tackle the misuse of antibiotics, particularly in preventive scenarios. The article “DRUG WAR”, explores the intricacies of the AMR crisis, emphasizing the importance of responsible practices in medicine.


GS-02 (Health)


Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR), New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1), Antibiotic Stewardship Program (AMSP), Steps Taken to Prevent the AMR, One Health Approach.

Mains Question:

Elaborate on the challenges posed by antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and propose comprehensive measures, involving both medical practitioners and governmental agencies, to address and mitigate the growing threat of AMR in the healthcare system. (250 words)

Dimensions of the Article:

  • Prophylactic Antibiotic Use
  • Antimicrobial Resistance: A Growing Threat
  • The Urgent Need for Antibiotic Research and Development
  • Patient Expectations and Medical Realities
  • Role of Government and Regulatory Measures

Prophylactic Antibiotic Use:

  • The practice of prescribing antibiotics for preventive purposes, known as prophylaxis, has become widespread in tertiary-care hospitals.
  • The survey reveals that over 70% of patients receive antibiotics, with more than 50% having the potential to induce AMR. Notably, 55% of patients were prescribed antibiotics preventively, while only 45% received antibiotics for treating infections.
  • Alarmingly, a mere 6% were administered antibiotics based on specific bacterial identification.

Antimicrobial Resistance: A Growing Threat

  • AMR arises when pathogens adapt, becoming resistant to antimicrobial drugs. While pathogen evolution is natural, unsound medical and animal husbandry practices exacerbate the crisis.
  • The WHO reports that bacterial AMR led to 1.27 million global deaths in 2019, contributing to a total of 4.95 million deaths. The consequences extend beyond challenging infection treatments, impacting other medical procedures like surgery, caesarean sections, and cancer chemotherapy. Infectious diseases specialists emphasize the urgent need for rational antibiotic prescriptions and controls on drug use in agriculture.

The Urgent Need for Antibiotic Research and Development:

  • The survey brings attention to the existing antibiotic research and development pipeline crisis. Developing new drug candidates and ensuring equitable access to them is imperative.
  • Doctors play a pivotal role in rational prescription practices, but governmental intervention is equally crucial. Establishing stringent systems to regulate antimicrobial use and investing in research on newer antibiotics are paramount.

Patient Expectations and Medical Realities:

  • Patients often seek immediate relief, fostering impatience with medical processes. However, medical science lacks magical remedies, requiring a nuanced approach to treatment.
  • Bridging the gap between patient expectations and the realities of medical science is essential in addressing the AMR crisis effectively.

Role of Government and Regulatory Measures:

  • The government’s role in regulating drug use is critical in the battle against AMR. While doctors influence prescription practices, governmental agencies must implement and enforce robust regulations.
  • Striking a balance between patient needs and responsible antibiotic use is essential for mitigating the impact of AMR.


To combat the AMR crisis, a multifaceted approach is necessary. Stricter regulations on antibiotic use, particularly in prophylaxis, must be enforced. Educational initiatives for both medical practitioners and the public can raise awareness about the consequences of AMR. Simultaneously, fostering antibiotic research and development, supported by equitable access measures, is vital. Achieving this balance between regulation, education, and research is the key to preserving the efficacy of antimicrobial drugs and safeguarding the progress of modern medicine.