Closing the gender pay gap in the workforce

Closing the gender pay gap in the workforce

Closing the gender pay gap in the workforce


In the past, conventional economic wisdom attributed women’s absence from the labour force to their roles as caregivers and pay disparities between women and men were ascribed to differences in education. However, Claudia Goldin, the 2023 Nobel Prize laureate in Economics, challenged this orthodoxy. She asserted that the solution to the problems of missing and underpaid women lay not within their homes but in the market.


GS – 02 (Issues Related to Women, Gender, Employment, Issues Relating to Development)


Women’s labour Force Participation, Wage Disparities, Gender Disparity, Female labour Force Participation Rate, Human Capital Development.

Mains Question:

How can a more balanced work-life environment be created to enhance gender equality in labour market outcomes, and what role does it play in reshaping labour market dynamics?

Dimensions of the Article:

  • Claudia Goldin’s view
  • The All-Consuming Responsibility Barrier
  • The Culprit: “Greedy Work”
  • Resonance with Juliet Schor’s Insights
  • Optimizing Women’s Employment in India
  • Reshaping Work and Social Environments
  • Overcoming Time Demands

Claudia Goldin’s view:

  • Claudia Goldin’s ground breaking work spans half a century, giving a name and voice to the issues faced by women in the labour force. She meticulously traces the transformation of the American economy from agrarian to industrial to service-based, highlighting the historical exclusion of women from market activities.
  • As economic production shifted from homes to factories and later to offices, schools, and hospitals, women found opportunities in the labour market. However, persistent wage disparities remained, challenging the belief that educational attainment alone could bridge the gender pay gap.

The All-Consuming Responsibility Barrier:

  • Professor Goldin’s research emphasizes that the persistent gender wage gap is a consequence of women’s limited ability to take on roles with all-encompassing responsibilities.
  • The demands of parenting often make it difficult for women to engage in jobs that require long hours and irregular schedules. For instance, the private equity partner who remains committed to late-night meetings and dinners may receive significant bonuses and promotions, while these demands clash with the responsibilities of child-rearing.
  • Often, women are pressured into assuming additional family duties, while men focus on their careers.

The Culprit: “Greedy Work”:

  • The root of this wage inequality, according to Professor Goldin, is the concept of “greedy work.” This demanding work model requires extraordinary efforts from employees, offering high salaries, bonuses, stock options, and fast promotions in return.
  • Rising income inequality incentivizes couples to prioritize increasing family income through specialization rather than striving for gender equity within the household. Professor Goldin proposes that the solution to this problem lies in reshaping workplaces to reduce the reliance on superhuman efforts, promote moderate work hours, and establish predictable schedules.

Resonance with Juliet Schor’s Insights:

  • Claudia Goldin’s research aligns with the work of Juliet Schor, who argued that companies benefited more from hiring two workers with extended hours than three workers with regular hours.
  • This approach reduced costs related to health insurance, office space, and personnel services. This resonates with the experiences of Indian workers juggling late-night calls with their American counterparts, all while assisting their children with homework, underlining the contemporary relevance of this issue.

Optimizing Women’s Employment in India:

  • Although women’s employment rates in India remain relatively low, favorable trends suggest that this situation can change. Building upon Professor Goldin’s insights, the growth of the service sector offers opportunities for women not available in manufacturing.
  • Increased education levels enhance employability, and declining fertility rates free up women’s time. The question is, how can we capitalize on these promising developments?

Reshaping Work and Social Environments:

  • To fully leverage these positive trends, it is imperative to encourage greater male participation in household work and childcare. Equally important is the need to reconfigure work and social environments to support a work-life balance for both men and women.
  • This entails work structures that respect employees’ time, discouraging excessive working hours, which research shows do not necessarily translate to increased productivity and can even lead to more errors and injuries in certain occupations.

Overcoming Time Demands:

  • Reining in not only the ‘greedy workplace’ but also institutions that demand excessive time is crucial. Schools that rely on parental supervision for homework and urban planning that places homes far from workplaces add to the challenges.
  • Creating supportive institutions that enable a better work-life balance is essential for realizing Claudia Goldin’s vision of gender convergence in labour market outcomes.

Way Forward:

  • The path forward involves creating a work and social environment that accommodates the needs of both men and women, focusing on balance rather than excessive work hours.
  • Encouraging greater male involvement in family responsibilities is equally vital. Moreover, we must challenge institutions that contribute to time demands, such as schools and urban development patterns.


Claudia Goldin’s work has been instrumental in acknowledging and addressing the persistent wage gap between women and men. By advocating for changes in workplace structures and challenging the culture of ‘greedy work,’ we can work toward a more balanced labour market. This not only ensures gender equality but also benefits society as a whole by promoting healthier work-life dynamics.