Urgency in Controlling E-Cigarettes

Urgency in Controlling E-Cigarettes


The World Health Organization (WHO) has raised concerns about the alarming impact of e-cigarettes on public health, emphasizing that these products are not proving effective for tobacco cessation at a population level. Instead, adverse health effects, especially on children and non-smokers, have become increasingly evident.


GS-02 (Health)


  • The WHO has stressed the urgent need for global measures to control e-cigarettes, preventing their uptake, particularly among young people.
  • Despite bans in 34 countries and regulations in only a few, e-cigarettes have permeated the market and are aggressively marketed, particularly targeting the youth.
  • In India, the possession of e-cigarettes is already prohibited by the Prohibition of Electronic Cigarette Act, 2019.
  • The WHO underscores the critical need for strict measures to protect citizens, especially children and young individuals, from the potential health hazards associated with e-cigarette use.

Key Highlights of the Issue:

  • E-cigarettes, as consumer products, have not demonstrated effectiveness in helping individuals quit tobacco use at a broader population level.
  • Despite bans in 34 countries, 88 countries have no minimum age restrictions for purchasing e-cigarettes, and 74 countries lack regulations for these products.
  • Studies reveal that young e-cigarette users are almost three times more likely to use traditional cigarettes later in life.
  • Globally, children aged 13-15 are using e-cigarettes at higher rates than adults in all WHO regions. Canada and the U.K. have witnessed significant increases in youth e-cigarette use.


  • Early Age Recruitment: E-cigarettes are recruiting and trapping children early on, potentially leading to nicotine addiction. Strict measures are required to prevent uptake and protect vulnerable populations.
  • Global Regulatory Gaps: Regulatory gaps persist globally, with varying degrees of restrictions. The lack of a cohesive approach allows the aggressive marketing and accessibility of e-cigarettes to young individuals.
  • Health Hazards: E-cigarettes, while not fully understood in terms of long-term health effects, are known to generate toxic substances, some carcinogenic, and pose risks to heart, lung, and brain health.

Understanding e-Cigarettes:

  • According to the FDA, e-cigarettes are devices that use a heating element to release an aerosol containing nicotine or other substances.
  • The liquid is usually refillable and contains nicotine, flavorings, propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin, and other ingredients. The liquid is heated to create an aerosol that is inhaled.
  • E-cigarettes are often called “vaping”.
  • The CDC says that most e-cigarettes contain nicotine, which is addictive and toxic to developing fetuses. Nicotine exposure can also harm adolescent and young adult brain development.
  • E-cigarettes produce a number of dangerous chemicals including acetaldehyde, acrolein, and formaldehyde. These aldehydes can cause lung disease, as well as cardiovascular (heart) disease.


  • Nicotine in e-Cigarettes poses addiction risks, health hazards to youth, young adults, and even pregnant women.
  • Aerosols may contain numerous metals and chemicals such has lead, chromium and formaldehyde, causing potential harm.
  • Lack of awareness and easy accessibility make youth susceptible to addiction.

Way forward:

  • Countries need to adopt and enforce strict regulations on the sale, marketing, and accessibility of e-cigarettes, particularly targeting the youth.
  • Public awareness campaigns should highlight the health risks associated with e-cigarette use, especially targeting parents, educators, and young individuals.
  • Integrate measures to prevent e-cigarette uptake into comprehensive tobacco control strategies, acknowledging the evolving landscape of tobacco and nicotine products.
  • Invest in research to better understand the long-term health effects of e-cigarettes and gather data to inform evidence-based policymaking.
  • Encourage collaboration among nations to share best practices, data, and regulatory frameworks to address the global challenge of e-cigarette use.


The urgency in controlling e-cigarettes necessitates a coordinated global effort, stringent regulations, educational initiatives, and research investments to protect public health, particularly the vulnerable younger population.