From women’s reservation to gender equality

From women’s reservation to gender equality

From women’s reservation to gender equality


Recently, Parliament took a historic step by passing the women’s reservation Bill, earmarking one-third of seats in the Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies for women. This significant move addresses the glaring gender disparity in India’s political representation, where women currently hold a mere 15% of seats, ranking India 141st out of 193 countries worldwide. The consensus on the importance of enhancing women’s representation in governance is undeniable, with this legislation marking a momentous milestone in that direction.


GS-02 (Gender, Government Policies and Interventions)


Right to Equality, Women Reservation bill, constitutional provisions related to women empowerment.

Mains Question:

Analyse the implications of the women’s reservation Bill, its dependence on the Census and delimitation processes, and the broader societal factors that influence women’s participation in politics. Discuss the role of government initiatives in addressing gender inequality in both political representation and unpaid household labour. (250 words)

Dimensions of the Article:

  • Census and Delimitation
  • Legal Complexities
  • Societal Transformation: Beyond Legislative Reforms
  • Unpaid Labour: A Persistent Disparity
  • Government Initiatives: Recognizing and Addressing Unpaid Labour

Census and Delimitation:

  • The successful implementation of the women’s reservation Bill hinges on the forthcoming Census and subsequent delimitation exercise. These processes, far from mere administrative tasks, carry profound implications for political representation.
  • Notably, delimitation has remained frozen since 1976 to ensure a level playing field for states in controlling population growth. Paradoxically, states that have made strides in women’s empowerment and consequently reduced population growth may stand to lose parliamentary seats in the event of a delimitation exercise.

Legal Complexities:

  • The constitutionality of anchoring a law, especially a constitutional amendment, on an uncertain future event raises legitimate questions. The legality of the contingency clause is a matter that may require adjudication by the constitutional courts.
  • This interconnection of essential legislative reforms with a future law, which may not be addressed until after the next Lok Sabha general elections, adds a layer of complexity to an already intricate issue.

Societal Transformation: Beyond Legislative Reforms

  • While legislative reforms are vital, the ultimate catalyst for change lies in altering societal perceptions of gender roles.
  • Women’s representation in elected bodies must be viewed within the broader context of women’s participation in India’s labour force, which currently lags behind global standards. Achieving genuine gender justice necessitates a shift towards equitable distribution of household responsibilities, including unpaid labour.

Unpaid Labour: A Persistent Disparity

  • The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation’s Time Use Survey (2019) underscores a stark gender disparity in unpaid domestic services. Women spend significantly more time on unpaid household chores and caregiving than men, reflecting deeply entrenched patriarchal norms.
  • The burden of unpaid labour limits women’s ability to participate fully in the labour force and ascend to the highest echelons of elected representation.

Government Initiatives: Recognizing and Addressing Unpaid Labour

  • Government programs, such as Tamil Nadu’s Magalir Urimai Thogai, provide a ray of hope by recognizing and addressing the substantial gender gap in unpaid household labour. The Urimai Thogai scheme, offering monthly cash transfers to women, signifies not charity but an acknowledgment of women’s disproportionate household burdens.
  • Complemented by initiatives like free bus passes for women, such efforts are poised to increase women’s participation in the labor force over the coming decades.

Way Forward:

  • As women’s representation in higher elected bodies is set to increase under the women’s reservation Bill, there arises the crucial task of building capacity for first-time women representatives.
  • Lessons from initiatives like EMILYs List in the U.S., which provide guidance, mentorship, and capacity-building for women in politics, offer valuable insights. Ensuring the success of the reservation